Amasiko

Ilifagugu leNgonyama uShaka kaSenzangakhona

nguSOLWAZI UHERBERT VILAKAZI

ABANYE emlandweni baqhamuka benamakhono ngokwengqondo nangokomoya ababazekayo, abavumela ukuba baxazulule izingqinamaba ezinqala ezibhekene nomphakathi ngesikhathi besaphila. Ezindabeni zendalo, laba bantu abanesiphiwo esingaka kungathi bathunyelwe uSomandla, noma iZithunywa zikaSomandla, ukuzohlenga abantu nomphakathi embubhisweni futhi abaholele enkambweni entsha ngokuphelele. E-England ngowe-1940 lowo muntu kwakunguWinston Churchill. E-Afrika eseningizimu ngekhulunyaka le-19 kwaba yiNgonyama uShaka. Kunobufakazi obuqoshiwe bokuthi amaKoloni angamaNgisi athatha isinqumo ngekhulunyaka le-19 sokubaqhuba inqubomgomo yokugxibha aMakhosi kaZulu, beqala ngeSILO uShaka. Babenomqondo wokuthi bawaveze njengabantu abonobusathane, abanobulwane, nabangababulali ukuze bathole ukwesekwa ngenqubomgomo yokubhubhisa uZulu kwababusa eBritain. Le nqubomgomo yaphumelela ukuhlahlanekezela umlando nobunjalo baMakhosi kaZulu emiqondweni yabaseNtshonalanga kanjalo nakwaboHlanga abafunde imfundiso yaseNtshonalanga. Ucwaningo olusha nolwethembekile luyadingeka ukuthola iqiniso ngeNgonyama uShaka. Umbuso kaZulu unomlando onohlonze nje kungenxa yeSILO uShaka. Ilifagugu leNgonyama uShaka, nelombuso kaZulu, akusilona elikaZulu kuphela kodwa ilifagugu i-Afrika yonkana nezizukulwane zonke ezingama-Afrika abaziqhenya ngalo. Leli lifagugu linamakhulukhulu eminyaka, noma izinkulungwane zeminyaka, elihlehla lize lifike eNkosini uMnguni, onguyise wabeNguni. Laba bantu babuye bazehlukanisa ngezizwe, abanye babo sebabukhohlwa ubudlelwano obuyizimpande zabo njengamalungu omndeni owodwa. Izindaba zendali zithi UMnguni wayenamadodana amane, uXhosa, uSwazi, uNdebele noZulu, lapho kwadaleka khona imiphakathi nezizwe zabo. USolwazi uLamla, waseNyuvesi iWalter Sisulu, embhalweni wakhe weziqu zobudokotela uqinisekisa ukuthi: “ Igama okwakubizwa ngalo amaXhosa lalithi ‘AbeNguni’ … Igama leNkosi uXhosa, wendlu kaMnguni, kwaba yigama lesizwe.” INdlovukazi uMkabi, uNdlunkulu weSILO uSenzangakhona, eyakhothama ngowe-1879, ikhumbula umlando womndeni kanje: “…Baqhubeka bezibiza ngegama labo lobusinsi elithi, ‘BaseNguni’… Ngicabanga ukuthi abantu abaningi bakwaZulu baqhamuka ezweni labeNguni kudala kodwa sebebumbe izizwe ezintsha.” Ubufakazi ngokwezilimi kuhlonza ukuthi abantu abakhuluma isiSotho nesiPedi kungenzeka ukuba bayisende likaMnguni. Eminyakeni eminingi edlule, owengifundisa isiSotho Sokuqala waqala isifundo sakhe ngokuthi: “Uhlaka lwesiSotho isiZulu.” Umzimba vele wakhiwe amathambo nenyama. Emlandweni wezilimi, inyama iqukethe okufanayo nokwehlukile okulokhu kukhona, kuguquka, kukhula ngesikhathi kulokhu kufudukwa, kuhamba isikhathi, kuhlanganwa ezindaweni nasemiphakathi eyahlukene. Osozilimi kuzofanele balandele le ndlela yokucwaninga. Kuyangimangaza ukuthi imibhalo yemilando ayisho lutho ngomhumushi, ehumushela izithunywa, ahumushe okushiwo iNgonyama uShaka nokushiwo keKgosi Moshoeshoe!

Ukwakhiwa kwesizwe esisha
Inselelo enkulu eyayibhekene neNgonyama uShaka kwakuyisidingo sokwakha isizwe esisha, nokuthi asakhe leso sizwe ezimweni ezingezinhle lapho abelungu befuna ukulibusa. Okwakuzosebenza ukuze afeze lezi zinhloso, okokuqala nokusemqoka, impi entsha kanye namasu okulwa amasha. Wayenobuhlakani obunzulu kwezempi, ayekusungula namasu okulwa kwaba ngundabamlonyeni ezifundweni zezempi emhlabeni wonke. Wakha uhlelo, ukulawuleka, inhlonipho ukuzigqaja, inhlanzeko kanye nobuqotho kwaba yingqikithi yobuZulu. Wakwazi ukwenza ubudlelwano ngokwenhlalo nangokwempi emphakathini: “Ibutho eliwumZulu lalingaphileli impi kuphela njengamasotsha amaNgisi ayesebenza ngokugcwele kwezempi futhi impi kaZulu yayingesona isikhungo ngokwayo, ingazehlukanisi nempilo yezakhamuzi futhi ingabuswa imithetho yayo yodwa; kunalokho kwakuyimpi eyakhiwa izakhamuzi ezibophezele ukuthi yonke indoda engumZulu isikhathi esithile sempilo yayo kodwa izingxabo zayo zisemasikweni nasekuwaqhubeni (u-Ian Knight, The Anatomy of the Zulu Army).
Abesifazane nabo babeba yingxenye yohlelo lwempi, yize bona babe ngalugcobhi lapho kuliwa khona. INgonyama uShaka yayinobu-Afrika futhi ininga kabanzi ngezomhlaba. Walayela izivakashi ezingamaNgisi ezaziseSigodlweni sakhe, wathi: “Tshelani inkosi yenu ukuthi ngithi kufanele ihlanganise zonke izizwe ezimhlophe ; mina ngizohlanganisa ezimnyama: emva kwalokho sizokwakha ubudlelwano bokuthula kanye nobokwamukelana.” Waqoka ithimba, elaliholwa inhlakani ehlonishwayo uSotobe, ukuba liye e-England ukuyo bonana no ‘mfowethu uGeorge’, limele yena, lifike liqaphe libuye lifunde konke okungasiza umbuso kanye nabantu abaholayo. USotobe omkhulu nethimba lakhe bazilungiselela bahamba. Kufika izindaba zokuthi iNgonyama uShaka isocongiwe bashiya phansi yonke into babuyela emuva. Kuyaqapheleka ukuthi okufanayo kwakwenziwa amaJaphani nawo ethumele ithimba e-England emva nje kancane iNgonyama uShaka ithumele elalo. Esebuyela emuva amaJaphani axoxela abaholi bawo ngeNguqukisamnotho Yabasebenzi eyayenzeka e-England. Emveni kwalokho, ngaphansi kobuholi bukaTogukawa, iJapan yaqala okwaholela ukuba kube neNguqukisamnotho Yabasebenzi YamaJaphani okwaholela ekwakhiweni kweJaphani enezimboni zesimanje! Ngabe iNgonyama uShaka yaqalisa intuthuko efanayo e-Afrika eseningizimu emveni kokuthola umbiko kaSotobe ngentuthuko yekhulunyaka le-19 e-England? Yilokhu kucabanga okuhle kuhluphe ama-Afrika. Inqubomgomo yobudlelwano namanye amazwe neNgonyama uShaka babumangalisa, budlula izinqubomgomo zamazwe aphambili zekhulunyaka lama-20 nelama-21. Umbuso wakhe wawufuna ukuthula nozinzo e-Afrika eseningizimu. Ngaleso sikhathi kwakukhona izizwe zezigcwelegcwele, abaholi bazo abaphila befuna udumo ngokuqhwaga izinkomo, izwe kanye nenye ingcebo. INgonyama uShaka yayifuna ukuqeda konke lokho ukuze kube nokuhleleka, ukuthula nokwamukelana kuheleze e-Afrika eseningizimu. Wayezimisele futhi ekulungele ukuhlasela amazwe ezigcwelegcwele elwela amazwe antekenteke. Udaba olugqamayo olwenqubomgomo yombuso nowezwe kaKgosi Moshoeshoe, owawuhlaselwa iNkosi uMatiwane wamaNgwane. INgonyama uShaka ithola izwi lokuthi uMatiwane uhlasela umbuso kaMshoeshoe, wathumela impi yakhe kwelabeSotho ukuze agudluze ekaMatiwane. Nebala, waphumelela. UMkhuzi Wempi yeNgonyama uShaka uMdlaka, owayehola impi, wahamba wabikela uKgosi Mshoeshoe ngokunqoba kwabo. Kwaba nomgidi wokwenamela ukunqotshwa kukaMatiwane esigodlweni sikaMshoeshoe. Isibuya ekaZulu kwaba nomgidi omkhulu eSigodlweni seNgonyama uShaka kubungazwa amaqhawe ayephethe izipho namazwi okubonga okuvela kuMshoeshoe. INgonyama uShaka yayinobudlelwano obuhle neKgosi uMoshoeshoe kanye neNgwenyama uSobhuza yombuso wamaSwazi.

Ubumqoka beseluleko
INgonyama uShaka wayeli ciko elimangalisayo, ecula, esina futhi eqamba namaculo. Lolu khondolo lubonakala lwehla nezizukulwane zeNdlu kaZulu. Isivakashi saseSigodlweni seNgonyama uShaka uHenry Francis Fynn, uqopha izikhathi ezahlukile, emiqulwini yomlando, izikhathi lapho iNgonyama uShaka isina khona nabantu bayo. UFynn uze aqophe amagama namabinzana aqanjwe yiSILO uShaka. Awukwazi ukuba wungqo, ube liciko elihlonishwayo, uma ungasebenzisi inqubo eyisiko labantu bakini (hhayi idlanzana noma izicuthe) okuyibona abakha ukucikoza kwakho. INgonyama uShaka ayizange izehluse esikweni labantu abangama-Afrika abagxile emigomeni yempucuzeko yama-Afrika. Wayeqonda ukuthi ingcebo engayiwa yempucuzeko yama-Afrika isekujuleni kwemiphefumulo, kwemiqondo nasemazwini alabo abasandulelayo.INdlovukazi uMkabi uyakufakazela ukuzihlanganisa kweNgonyama uShaka ngcithabuchopho bama-Afrika kanye nesiko lama-Afrika elakha isizwe esinesisekelo nesiqinile: “Ngokungangabazeki ubeyiNkosi, ubezizungeza ngabantu abahlakaniphile ezweni… njengeNdlovukazi bengihlangana nawo wonke umuntu eSiklebeni… Kwakuyilezo zinsuku lapho abantu abasemqoka bebebuthanela eNdlunkulu, abantu bakhulu, aMakhosi nosomaqhinga bamanye amazwe, namadoda angomakhelwane… amadoda afana noNdlela umkhuzi nomeluleki, uNzobe, uDambuza noSotobe Sibiya bonke abaluleki abakhulu iSILO uShaka esasibethemba… mayelana nezindaba zomuzi nezamazwe, ikakhulukazi ngezikhathi zobunzima abalungu beyinkinga. Ngaleso sikhathi babeluleka iNkosi ngokuthi akusizona ezempi kuphela okufanele zibunjwe, kodwa nenqubo yesizwe kufanele iqhutshezelwe phambili. Umcimbi omkhulu, uMkhosi Wokweshwama, waminyaka yonke, kufanele wenziwe uma wonke ebuthene evunule… lapho iNkosi yayiqiniswa, kusinwa, kubekwa imithetho emisha … iNkosi yayizamukela ngenkulu intokozo iziyalo kube wumbuthano omkhulu… Ukuba khona kwayo, ukuzibandakanya ekusineni nokusikisela kwayo ngobungcweti bokulwa, kwakuyenza ihlonipheke ngaphandle kongabazane kubantu bayo.” Abanye abeluleki abakhulu kwakunguNgomane noMbikwane, ababebadala kuneNgonyama uShaka, kanye noMgobhozi iqhawe lempi futhi engumgcinisifuba seNgonyama uShaka. Umphakathi owawubuswa yiNgonyama uShaka futhi efuna ukuwuthuthukisa wawungama-Afrika uqobo. Umbuso wawakhiwe izizwana zezigodi azihlanganisile, unesisekelo sokudlelana nokuhlalisana ezweni, kuthi onezwi kulo kube iSILO Samabandla Onke. Isigodi ngasinye sasilingana nesinye, siziphatha, silandela ubudlelwano obakha ubunye boMbuso olawulwa uBukhosi beNdlunkulu. Lo mgomo wokuziphatha kwezigodi wawulandelwa ngokukhulu ukucophelela kungagudlukwa kuwona. Izigodi ezibuthelwe ndawonye zaziba nomkhandlu wazo okuhlala kuyo inkosi yendawo. Bese kuba khona uMkhandlu Wesizwe owenganyelwa iNkosi yesizwe okwakuba yiSILO. INdlovukazi uMkabi uthi: “INgonyama uShaka, uma isekhaya yayiba nezigcawu ezivulelekile zokubonisana. Wonke umuntu wayevumelekile ukuthamela lezi zigcawu ahlale alalele izingxoxo ngokwenzeka ezweni; futhi evumela wonke umuntu ukuba abeke uvo ngezindaba zezwe…”

Abesifazane nombuso
Abesifazane babamba iqhaza elibalulekile kwezepolitiki nasekuphathweni kwezwe ngesikhathi seNgonyama uShaka. Abesifazane baseNdlunkulu bebeya futhi babambe iqhaza ezingxogxweni zoMkhandlu Wesizwe. INdlovukazi uMkabayi, ubabekazi weSILO uShaka, wabanomthelela omkhulu emlandweni wokubuswa kwezwe lakwaZulu. Wabamba umbuso wezwe, ngesikhathi uSenzangakhona eseliklume. Wayesekhaleni kuhlelwa ukugoduswa kweLembe. Abesifazane babayingxenye esemqoka kwezempi ngesikhathi Ingonyama uShaka yakha umkhumbi omusha wempi wesizwe. INgonyama uShaka wabeka izindawo ezingamakhanda (empi) kuzo zonke izifunda zezwe. Abesifazane, imvamisa, kwakuba yibona abaphatha amakhanda. “Amakhanda ayesemqoka ekuphathweni kombuso wamaZulu…” INgonyama “yayilokhu iwahambela amakhanda .. uma ingekho ayelawulwa isethenjwa esiqokiwe, imvamisa kube ngowesifazane wasekhaya,” kusho u-Ian Knight, ku‘The Anatomy of the Zulu Army’. INdlovukazi uMkabi ulanda kanje: “… wayenikeza iziNdlovukazi izibuya zempi lapho kwakuba khona izinduna kanye nabaphathi bempi; eqinisweni uMkabayi wamnikeza izibuya ezimbili… Lapho, kwakunamabutho abalelwa ezi-10 000, wayenophiko lwakhe lwangasenyakatho eliqaphe okusondelayo, futhi ekwazi ukuyiphaka esikhathini esifushane kunoma kuluphi uhlangothi…” INdlovukazi uMkabi luqobo waye nebutho ayeliphethe elalikanisa eSiklebeni. INgonyama uShaka yaqoka uSotobe ‘waba induna yami eSiklebeni mina ngilibamba leNgonyama uShaka ekulawulweni kombuso kaZulu.” (KwaZulu)

Abesifazane empilweni yeLembe
Ubufakazi buveza ukuthi iNgonyama uShaka wayehlala ebalalela abesifazane. Okuqoshwe nguFynn ngukuxhumana okubabazekayo phakathi kweNgonyama uShaka nogogo wayo, iNdlovukazi uMthaniya: “Uma kwenzeka Indlovukazi ihambela iSILO sasivamise ukuba sigeze Indlovukazi amehlo nezindlebe ngenxa yokuba sesimweni esibi ngokukhula kwayo iNdlovukazi; ibuye icwale nezinzipho zeNdlovukazi…” Ngesikhathi ebikelwa ngokwedlula kweNdlovukazi emhlabeni, iNgonyama “yahlala yethula isikhathi izwa ubuhlungu, ininga. Imizwa yobuhlungu yamengama. Wavele wadazuluka, wabhonga.” Wayesukile egadeni, ensundu, elubhabhadlolo, iNgonyama uShaka wayeyisibuko sabesilisa. “Wayeyindoda ebukeka kahle enobuhlakani obuyisimanga… ethandeka. Kwakuyoba usokela ukuba waba nesikhathi sokweshela!” (KwaZulu). Njengezikhathi zikaLenin, owakhahlazwa ukufufusa kwenguqukisamnotho eRussia engakucabangi ukuphemba umndeni noma ukuba nezingane, iNgonyama uShaka naye ngokufanayo wayenombono owodwa noqondile wokubumba isizwe futhi wayengenawo umndeni noma izingane ezaziwayo. INgonyama uShaka yayibuswa yilukuluku lokuqondisa okungalungile; yahlupheka nonina. Lelo lukuluku yalilumbanisa nesifiso sobuzwe abumbe isizwe esinamandla ukuze sihlangabezane nezinselelo nezidingo zangaleso sikhathi ze-Afrika eseningizimu. Umongo wempokophelelo yayo kwakuwukubunjwa komkhumbi wempi kanye namasu amasha okulwa. “Yayi yinkunzi kayihlehli.” (KwaZulu). USonkondlo uMazisi Kunene uthi: “Wayethonywe yimimoya yamandla enkunzi.” Yize kunjalo, yayi nobudlelwano obuhle nabesifazane nokho lolo thando ngabo lwalungolokufeza ukuphokophelela ukubumba isizwe esinamandla. Wabuye wenza umendo nempilo yomndeni yamaZulu kwaba yingxenye yale mpokophelelo. Izinsizwa nezintombi zazivumeleke ukugana kuphela uma seziwenzile umsebenzi wesizwe owawuphoqelekile. UKunene, ku-Emperor Shaka the Great, ugxile kakhulu emlandweni oxoxwayo noqoshiwe, ukhuluma ngo‘Phampatha isithandwa sakhe’ empilweni yoMntwana uShaka ngaphambi kokuba athathe iSihlalo.

Kukhona namahlebezi okuhlanganisa izintombi nomnawabo uMntwana uMpande okwakuhlelwa iNgonyama uShaka. Okunye kwalezi zinhlelo, udaba luthi intokazi yayiveli isizithwele (bheka imisebenzi kaR. R. R. Dhlomo).

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