Iphupho le-Afrika

Njengoba kwakunjalo izolo amaciko ayaqhubeka nokuba yisibuko

nguNHLANHLA MTAKA

YIZE isikhathi esiningi nxa kukhulunywa ngezwekazi i-Afrika kukhulunywa ngombangazwe kanjalo nangombusazwe. Iqiniso lithi kukhulu okungale nokwalikhulula leli lizwekazi engcindezelweni. Ubuciko obehlukene obubandakanya ukubhala, ukucula, ukukhuluma kanye nokugiya kwaqatha indima emqoka ekukhululeni ama-Afrika. Lokhu (ubuciko) kwaqinisekisa ukuthi ama-Afrika ayecindezelwe kawalangazeleli kuphela ukukhululeka ngokomzimba kepha ayaphikelela ekuzikhululeni nangokomqondo.

E-Afrika ubuciko bakhiqiza izigomagoma ezifana noMagema Magwaza (Fuze), uSol Plaatjie, uJohn Langalibalele Dube, uH.I.E. Dlomo, uFratz Fanon, uJohn Mbiti, u-Otty Nxumalo, uMafika Gwala, uNgungi wa Thiongo, u-Eskia Mphahlele, uMirriam Makeba, uLetta Mbulu, uJoseph Shabalala, uKing Edward Masinga, uMzwakhe Mbuli, uZakes Mda, uMbongeni Ngema, uFela Kuti nabanye abaningi abayibeka induku ebandla. Yibo ubuciko obagqugquzela abaholi abafana noSteve Biko ukuba baphume qekelele, bathi: ‘Sibamnyama futhi sibahle!’

Ngezikhathi zombangazwe amaciko asebenzisa amakhono awo ukududula abacindezeli. Imidlalo yeshashalazi efana no-Asinamali owawudlalwa ngabantu abafana noMbongeni Ngema, uThami Boy Ngema noBheki Mqadi kanye nothi, ‘Sizwe Banzi is Dead’ owawudlalwa nguWilson Ntshona kanye noJohn Kani yalekelela ekufundiseni abacindezelwa ngohlobo lukaHulumeni wangaleso sikhathi. Izinkondlo ezifana nekaNgoapele Madingoane (Africa my Beginning), ekaMzwakhe Mbuli (Change is Pain) zaba yivuso kulabo ababe semzabalazweni. Njengabaholi bamaqembu epolitiki amaciko ahlukunyezwa, aboshwa amanye aze abulawa ngakho ukuba wubhaqa lwabacindezelwa ezikhathini ezinzima.

Nokho kungaba yiphutha ukubuka iqhaza lamaciko e-Afrika kuphela ngezikhathi zombangazwe ngoba kwamanye amazwe afana neKenya neNigeria amaciko afana noChinua Achebe (Things Fall Apart), uNgungi wa Thiongo (An Arrow of God) baqhubeka nokuba ‘yizingqapheli’ nabavikeli benkululeko besebenzisa amakhono abo. La maciko kawathanga ngoba izwe selikhululekile ngakho kumele angenzi lutho. Yikho amaciko afana noLetta Mbulu engananazanga ukuqamba ingoma ethi, ‘Not Yet Uhuru’ ngenxa yalokhu abe ekubona kwenzeka ukuthi yize sekukhona esikutholile ngasohlangothi lwepolitiki kepha kusekuningi nxa kufika kwezomnotho.

Nanamuhla amaciko ase-Afrika asesekhaleni lokuveza lokho okuyimizwa yezakhamuzi zaleli lizwekazi. Lokhu kubonakale kakhulu lapho izingwazi iLadysmith Black Mambazo zihlangana nesihlabani saseMali uSalif Keïta behlanganisa iculo lokubabaza imihlola ebiyenzeka eNingizimu Afrika lapho bekunokuhlaselwa kwabokufika kuphangwe nempahla yabo. Ingoma yabo ethi, ‘United We Stand’ ituswe kakhulu njengenye yemizamo yokuqeda ukulwa kanye nokudweba isithombe esiyiso ukuthi i-Afrika nama-Afrika kumele abumbane. Kwakunjalo nangesikhathi abaculi abafana noPapa Wemba, uJabu Khanyile noYoussou N’Dour bekhuza ukulwa emazweni ase-Afrika ngenoni iWhy. Bakhalima oLucky Dube, uBrenda Fassie noChicco ngesabo isikhathi.

Abaculi abafana noThandiswa Mazwai, uSimphiwe Dana nabanye abaningi basabhala futhi bacule izingoma eziletha umbuzo nezimpendulo lapho sidukayo nokuwumsebenzi wamaciko, ukungagcini nje kuphela ngokunandisa kepha kube khona nalokho okuba yizifundo. Amaciko akwazile ukuhlanganisa izilimi namazwe ehlukene e-Afrika.

Amanye amaciko okungavamile ukukhulunywa ngawo kuleli lizwekazi ngamaciko angabasakazi. Selokhu kwathi nhlo umsakazo ugadula ibanga elide nelisemqoka ekuqwashiseni nasekufundiseni ngesimo sezwe. Nokho isigameko saseRwanda ngonyaka we-1994 sasifundisa ubungozi bokusebenzisa lobu buciko budedengu lapho umsakazo wasetshenziswa njengesikhathi sokudala udlame nokucwasana emphakathini. Lokhu kwaba yichashaza elibi kulokho okuningi okwenziwa ngumsakazo e-Afrika. Ngomsakazo ama-Afrika ayafunda ngezimo zansuku zonke, ubuchwepheshe, amasiko ehlukene kanye nomculo ngezilimi ezahlukene. Kanjalo iRadio Freedom, eminyakeni yowe -70 nowe-80, ezweni iZambia yayingazibekile phansi igxile kakhulu ekwaziseni umphakathi e-Afrika ngomzabalazo oqhutshwa ngaphandle kwaseNingizimu Afrika ecindezelwe. lokhu kwakuwukubambisana nokubumbana kwamazwe ase-Afrika elwa nokucindezelwa. Kumanje iVoice of Africa Radio (VOAR) isakazela i-Afrika yonke ilwa ngoba ibona ukwesweleka kwengqalasizinda emazweni amaningi e-Afrika. Lo msakazo wona uzinze eMozambique. Kule Afrika ethuthukayo nenombono mkhulu umsebenzi osazokwenziwa ngamaciko njengoba eqhubeka nokuba yisibuko sezwe lapho lizibika khona okuhle nokubi elikwenzayo. La maciko kawagcini ngokuba yisibuko kepha aphinde abe lubhaqa lokhukhanyisa ebumnyameni.

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