EzanamuhlaIphupho le-Afrika

Ukuhlangana komhlathi owazanayo

nguNHLANHLA MTAKA

  • Ukusebenzisana kwamazwe ase-Afrika ezindabeni ezithinta umnotho kanye nepolitiki yamazwe ngamazwe sekuthela izithelo ezibonakalayo
  • KWENYE yezinkulumo zakhe ezinobuhlakani, uMarcus Garvey uqagula uthi: “Uma ufuna ukuqonda inamuhla ukuze uqondise ikusasa, kufanele uqondisise ukuthi akusikhona kuphela okwenziwe abantu abakhulu nokuthi abantu baphile kanjani, kodwa nokuthi wonke umuntu ube naliphi ithemba njengoba kukuningi umuntu akuphilelayo, kanti futhi wonke umuntu unethemba, ziningi izinto abanethemba lokuzenza. Lelo themba liyincazelo yokwehluka kwesikwenzayo, ikakhulukazi ngoba okwakuphuphwa okhokho kufezeke sebedlulile emhlabeni. Inamhlanje beliyithemba, liwukufisa liwumcabango kwayizolo. UkuVuselelwa Kobu-Afrika (African Ranaissance) kuyilelo themba obabamkhulu abangama-Afrika ababenalo ngabantu kanye nangezwekazi. Umyalezo wokuVuselelwa Kobu-Afrika kuqukethwe kuPan Africanism Movement yeminyaka edlule.”

    IPan Africanism isukela ekuhlakazekeni kwabantu lapho amaqoqo abantu abangama-Afrika abaqhamuka ezingxenyeni eziningi zezwekazi bahlangana, futhi abantu abamnyama bamimilita ulimi lomgqilazi futhi ngalokho bakwazi ukusho babuye bazihlelele inkululeko. Inhlangano iPan African iqubuke ngezikhathi ezahlukene, ezindaweni ezahlukene, futhi yagxila ngezindlela ezahlukene. Ngowe-1900 inhlangano iPan African yabeka uvo lwayo kubabusi nasemibusweni engondlovukayiphikiswa kodwa yashaywa indiva; phakathi kowe-1919 kuya kowe-1927 yacela uzwelo kubantu base-Europe nabase-USA abaphusile emakhanda nasezihlakaniphini; ngowe-1945 yazeneka kubantu base-Afrika ngobuningi babo. Namhlanje, inxusa wonke umuntu ukuba alwele ukuVuselelwa. Ukufuna ubunye be-Afrika kubukwa ngokwachazwa uNkrumah njengombono wePan Africanist kuqukethwe enkulumweni yakhe edumile yowe-1963: “UBunye Bama-Afrika ngaphezu kwakho konke, umbuso wezepolitiki, bungatholakala kuphela ngezindlela zepolitiki. Intuthuko ye-Afrika kwezenhlalo nakwezomnotho kuzofika kuphela sekukhona umbuso wezepolitiki, hhayi ngenye indlela. Akusibo ubunye kuphela okungasihlanganisa sibe nomfutho onomthelela, okwazi ukwakha inqubekelaphambili yethu kanye nokwakha izimiso eziwumnikelo ekuthuleni emhlabeni. Iliphi izwe elizimele e-Afrika, ubani kinina lapha, ongathi isimo sezimali lalo kanye namabhange ahambisana ngokugcwele nokuthuthuka kwalelo lizwe?” (uNkrumah, ngowe-1963).

    OwayenguMengameli waseTanzania uJulius Nyerere wakwamukela lokhu ngokugcizelela ubumqoka bobunye be-Afrika. Wacacisa esidlangaleni wathi: “Okwakusemiqondweni yobaba abangabaqambi bendlela kwakuyintshisekelo emsulwa yokuthatha i-Afrika bayise obumbanweni olukhulu. Sikufela amathe ukwehlukaniswa kwezwekazi libe amazwe amancane angenamsebenzi.” (uNyerere, ngowe-1997). Ngowe-1992, owayenguNobhala Jikelele we-OAU, uSalim Amhed Salim, wathi: “Ngaphandle kokuhlangana, i-Afrika ngeke kube nje ukukhishwa inyumbazana, izobukwa njengento engenamsebenzi.” (u-Oden, 1992:12)
    Kufanele kugcizelelwe iphuzu elithi injula yePan Africanism yakhelwe ekukhululekeni, ekuthuthukeni nasenqubekelaphambilini yezizukulwane ze-Afrika okungatholakala kuphela ngobunye babantu.

  • Umlando WoSuku Lwe-Afrika
  • Emva kweMpi YoMhlaba Yesibili, ukulwisana nobukoloni ezwenikazi i-Afrika kwaqoqela umfutho ndawonye njengoba ama-Afrika ayeqhubeka elubalela amalungelo amaningi ezepolitiki kanye nenkululeko. Kanti kwezinye izingxenye zezwekazi ukubusa ngobukoloni kwayeka amandla obukoloni ngokungathandi nangokwamagqubu, kwezinye izingxenye ama-Afrika aba nemizabalazo yesikhathi eside belwisana nemibuso yamakoloni anenkani. Ngakho-ke, phakathi kowe-1945 nowe-1965 isibalo esibonakalayo samazwe ase-Afrika sathola inkululeko sigqabula amaketango obukoloni base-Europe. IGhana kwaba yizwe lokuqala eningizimu yeSahara ukuthola inkululeko mhla ziyisi-6 kuNdasa ngowe-1957. Ukukhululeka kwayo kwafaka ugqozi kwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika elwisana nombuso wamakoloni futhi iGhana yabamba iqhaza ekulwisaneni nokubuswa ngobukoloni.

    Ngaphezu nje konyaka emva kwenkululeko yaseGhana iholwa uKwame Nkrumah yabiza iNgqungquthela Yokuqala Yamazwe Akhululekile E-Afrika mhla zili-15 kuMbasa ngowe-1958. Amanye alawo mazwe ayekhona kwaba iGhana, i-Ethiopia, iSudan, iLiberia, iLibya, iMorocco neTunisia. Kwakukhona nezithunywa zeNational Liberation Front of Algeria kanye ne-Union of Cameroonian Peoples. Kusemqoka ukuba kuqashelwe ukuthi amazwe ase-Afrika ayeyisishiyagalombili kuphela ayesekhululekile ngalesi sikhathi. Ingqungquthela kwakuyisiqinisekiso esingephikiswe se-Afrika sokuchitha ukuqonelwa kwezwekazi ngobukoloni nangokwamanye amazwe. Kwaba ingqungquthela yokuqala yePan Africa ukuba ibanjelwe ezwenikazi ibuthanisa amazwe ehlukene ase-Afrika. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ingqungquthela yaba yisizinda lapho amazwe ase-Afrika ayefuna ukusebenzisana ukuze alwisane nobukoloni.

    Ukugqugquzela nokuzuza inhloso efanayo yokulwa nokubuswa ngobukoloni, ingqungquthela inxuse ukuba kubungazwe uSuku LweNkululeko Yama-Afrika (African Freedom Day) kanye ngonyaka, ukuqopha “inqubekelaphambili eqhubekayo nenhlangano yenkululeko, kubuye kube wuphawu lokuzimisela kwama-Afrika ekuzikhipheni ekuqonelweni abangaphandle kanye nasekuxhashazweni.” Ngokunjalo, usuku lwamhla zili-15 kuMbasa lwaqoshwa lwabizwa ngoSuku LweNkululeko Yama-Afrika (noma uSuku LokuKhululeka Kwe-Afrika [Africa Liberation Day]), futhi lokhu kwaqopha ukuqala okuzothi kamuva kwaziwe ngoSuku Lwe-Afrika (Africa Day).

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