Umlando Wethu

UMnyamana wama neSilo uCetshwayo ebunzimeni

OSHICILELWENI olwedlule sethule umlando wobukhosi nesizwe sakwaButhelezi okucacayo ukuthi sinomlando ojulile kwaZulu. Kwathi uma kubheduka impi yaseSandlwana mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana 1879, kwadingeka uMbuso weNgonyama uCetshwayo ubhekane nedlanzana lamasotsha amaNgisi kanye nezinkulungwane zezizwe zamakhosi aseningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi.

Cetshwayo
INgonyama uCetshwayo kaMpande

Wonke amakholwa ase-Edendale, Ndaleni Driefontein, Groutville kanye nabaTlokwa benkosi uHlubi Molefe ababezinze kwaNobamba (Weenen) kade beyingxenye yabaTlokwa bakaSigonyela kaMokotjo noMantantise unina, balethwa eNatali. Babesuswa eNtabazwe ukuzokulwa neNkosi uLangalibalele Hadebe ngowe 1873. Amasotsha amaNgisi ayesuka eNgilandi, Australia, New Zealand nase-Canada.

Ngakho-ke akulona iqiniso ukuthi amabutho kaZulu ayemaningi kunempi yamaNgisi kwazise izizwe zakwaTembe, Nyawo, Mngomezulu, Myeni nezingxenye zezizweezidabuka kwesakwaMashabane: oGumede, Mdluli, Jobe noNgwane zona azizange zilwe eSandlwana. Impi yeSilo uCetshwayo yalwiwa ngamaZulu enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi kodwa eyamaNgisi uma sekuhlanganiswa namaZulu ayengamambuka ingaphezulu kude kwekaZulu kangangokuthi amasotsha amaNgisi aqale azihlalela ematendeni awo athumela impi yamaZulu aseNingizimu yoThukela nabaTlokwa.

UMnyamana, owayenguNdunankulu weSilo, akazange abe ngumdidiyeli empini yaseSandlwana mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana 1879. Ababesha amashushu ngokuthi uMbuso wamaNgisi kwakudingeke kubhekwane nawo ngezikhali uma uhlasela elakwaZulu ngoMbilini owayeqhamuke eSwazini, uNtshingwayo kaMahole Khoza noSihayo kaXhongo Ngobese.

UMnyamana yena wayebona kungebona ubuhlakani ukuhlasela amaNgisi kungaziwa isibalo sawo lapho ayevela khona. Akazange abekhona empini yokuhlasela kwamaNgisi eSandlwana ngoba wayegula. Umdidiyeli wayo yonke impi yamaZulu kwaba nguNtshingwayo kaMahole Khoza. AbakwaKhoza babakhe ngasentabeni iSiphezi eduze kwakhona eSandlwana. UMnyamana wahola impi yaseHlobane nakwaKhambula eduze kwalapho sekuyidolobha laseVryheid khona. Amabutho ayewahola kwakungabaQulusi iningi lawo okungabantu ababengaphansi kwesizwe sakwaButhelezi.

Lawo mabutho alwa ngobuqhawe obesabekayo kodwa amabutho amaNgisi adla umhlanganiso ngenxa yokudubula ngezibhamu ekude. Isiphelile impi neNgonyama uCetshwayo isibanjiwe ngaseNgome, umbuso wamaNgisi wehlukanisa izwe lakwaZulu enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi iziqinti eziyi-13. UMnyamana wenqaba ukuthatha isiqinti ayesinikezwa ngu-Sir G Wolseley. Wathi: “ubukhosi bami bufile. Bengiyinkosi kwaZulu. Ngeke manje ngifake uphaphe lukahulumeni wabelungu, oqede ubukhosi bami.” [Ndukwana, p.300].

UMnyamana wesekelwa ngabantwana baseNdlunkulu oNdabuko nabanye ekuchitheni ubukhosi obabunikezwa ngamaNgisi. Uhulumeni wamaNgisi wehlukanisa izwe lakhe izingxenye ezintathu: enkulu yanikezwa uHhamu, eyesibili ingxenye yanikezwa uMfanawendlela Zungu kwathi ingxenye yesithathu eMangeni yanikezwa uNtshingwayo kaMahole owayengumdidiyeli wempi enkulu eSandlwana.

Ngo-1880 uMnyamana wafuna ilungelo lakhe lobukhosi emaNgisini kodwa uMelmoth Osborne, owayenguKhomishana wamaNgisi eShowe, weluleka uKhomishana omkhulu wamaNgisi eNingizimu Afrika uSir Evelyn Wood ukuthi kwakudingeke uMnyamana angabe esanikezwa mhlaba. UMelmoth Osborne wayesaba ukuthi ukunikeza uMnyamana umhlaba kwakungadalela amaNgisi inkinga uma uMnyamana eba nesizinda sokuhlanganisa abaholi bakwaZulu esebenzisa leyo ndawo ayenikezwe yona.

Ukuthunjwa kwezinkomo zenkosi uMnyamana Isiqinti esasinikezwe uMntwana uHhamu ngamaNgisi sasehlukaniswe yimifula uBivane, iMpemvane noPhongolo endaweni eyayingaphansi kwamaBhunu ibizwa ngeNtilasifali. Leyo ndawo yayikade ingaphansi kukaMnyamana impi yaseSandlwana ingakalwi. Ngemuva kokuba uHhamu esenikezwe isiqinti eklonyeliswa ngokwembukela kwakhe emaNgisini ngempi yaseSandlwana, uMnyamana wabe esezinze eningizimu-mpumalanga yesiqinti sikaHhamu.

UHhamu waqala ngokufuna izinkomo zakhe athi zazithunjwe yiSilo uCetshwayo ngo-1879 sazinikeza uMnyamana ukuba azigcine ngenkathi uHhamu embukela emaNgisini ekuhlaselweni koMbuso wakwaZulu. UHhamu waphinde wafuna ukuthi uMnyamana akhokhe amakhulu ezinkomo kuye zokukhonza endaweni yakhe.

UMnyamana wazikhokha izinkomo zokuthi wayesendaweni eyayisinikwe uHhamu ngamaNgisi kodwa wenqaba ukubuyisela izinkomo uHhamu ayethi zazithathwe yiSilo uCetshwayo. Kwathi ngoLwezi 1880 uHhamu wahlasela imizi eyayingaphansi kukaMnyamana wathumba izinkomo nenye imfuyo.

AmaNgisi ayephoqe wonke amakhosi ukuthi aqoqe izinkomo zeSilo uCetshwayo ezazisiswe kubantu abathile nezibhamu azilethe kuwo. Kwakungenabufakazi bokuthi kwakunezinkomo zeSilo uCetshwayo ezazikuMnyamana. Kodwa amaNgisi athi zazikhona izinkomo ezazisiswe yiSilo uCetshwayo kuNdunankulu waso.

Ngemuva kokuba uHhamu ehlasele wathumba izinkomo emizini eyayingaphansi kukaMnyamana, yena wamemezela ukuthi wayengeke esamhlonipha uHhamu njengenkosi yesiqinti wayesezobika konke koMelmoth Osborne owayemele uMbuso wamaNgisi eShowe. Isenzo sokuhlasela kukaHhamu salandelwa uphenyo uSir Evelyn Wood athi u-Osborne makalwenze ngoMbaso 1881.

UMnyamana waziyela qobo kwababephenya, kodwa uHhamu yena wathumela izithunywa zakhe. Ubufakazi obabekwa baveza ukuthi kwakukhona umehluko esibalweni sezinkomo okwakuthiwa zathunjwa nguHhamu kuMnyamana.

UMnyamana wafakazi wathi wakhipha izinkomo eziyi-150 ezinikeza uHhamu njengentela. Waqhubeka uMnyamana wathi phezu kwalezo zinkomo uHhamu waphinde wathumba izinkomo zakhe eziyizi-2 780 kodwa izinduna zikaHhamu zafunga zathi izinkomo zazingaphansi kweziyizi-2 000. Abaphenyi bamsola uHhamu ngokwenza isijeziso esikhulu kangaka ngaphandle kokulalelwa kwesikhalo sakhe njengoba kwakulawula umthetho wababenikezwe iziqinti eziyi-13.

NgoNcwaba 1881 u-Sir Evelyn Wood waba nomhlangano nabaholi bamaZulu eNhlazatshe. Mayelana nodaba lukaMnyamana noHhamu, uWood wasola uMnyamana ngokungahloniphi isikhundla sobukhosi bukaHhamu, wasola uHhamu ngokudla izinkomo eziningi zikaMnyamana ngaphandle kokumbeka icala.

Wanquma ukuthi uHhamu aphindisele emuva izinkomo ezingama-700. UMnyamana wakhala kakhulu ngemuva komhlangano ngokuthi uMbusi u-Evelyn Wood akenzanga bulungiswa ngoba izinkomo zakhe ezaziqolwe nguHhamu zazingaphezulu kwezingama-700.

UHhamu owayengazange awuhambele umhlangano waseNhlazatshe wayengeneme neze ngesinqumo sika-Wood wathi kuhle u-Wood akhethe phakathi kwakhe noMnyamana. Wanxusa uMelmoth Osborne ukuthi asuse bonke abalandeli benkosi uMnyamana endaweni yakhe.

Okubalulekile ngukuthi amakhosi ayenikezwe iziqinti eziyi 13 iningi lawo ayengonopopi bamaNgisi engenzi lutho engayalelwe ngamaNgisi ukuba ayenze. UMnyamana wayesekwe kakhulu nguMkhandumba, enye yamadodana akhe eyayiqaphe imizi yakhe ngaseNgoje neyayiphikisana kakhulu nokuqolwa kwezinkomo zakwaButhelezi.

Abanye ababelwa noHhamu ngoMntwana uMuntumuni waseGazini owayesendaweni eyayingaphansi kukaMnyamana eyayikade inikezwe uNgqengelele. Walwa wawaxosha amabutho kaHhamu. Ekugcineni azizange ziphindiselwe izinkomo zakwaButhelezi ezaziqolwe nguHhamu ngegunya likaMelmoth Osborn.

UMnyamana nokulwela ukubuyiswa kweSilo uCetshwayo ekudingisweni Ngemuva komhlangano waseNhlazatshe ngoNcwaba 1881, uMnyamana wagqugquzela amaZulu anohlonze ukuba alwele ukubuyiswa kweSilo uCetshwayo ekudingisweni.

Umzabalazo wokubuyisa iSilo uCetshwayo owawunethimba elaliholwa nguMntwana uNdabuko wagcina ubenomphumela wokuthi iNgonyama uCetshwayo isuke e-Oude Moulen eKapa iyobonana no-Queen Victoria eNgilandi ngoNcwaba 1882.

Kuthe mhla zingama-29 kuMasingana 1883, iSilo uCetshwayo satheleka kwaZulu enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi. NguMnyamana owasemukela egameni lamaZulu wonke eMthonjaneni kwahanjwa naso kuphikelelwe eSigodlweni sasoNdini oLumahlikihlikana kwazise olokuqala olwalwakhiwe kahle lashiswa ngamabutho amaNgisi ngo-1879.

ISilo uCetshwayo sase singasaphethe yonke indawo ngoba enyakatho yeMfolozi eMnyama kwakubusa uZibhebhu owayesetshenziswa ngamaNgisi ukubhidliza umbuso wakwaZulu. Eningizimu yoMhlathuze kwakuphethe uJohn Dunn owayeseyisitha esikhulu seNgonyama uCetshwayo. Ngakho-ke indawo iSilo uCetshwayo esasibusa kuyo yayikakwe yizitha zaso enyakatho naseningizimu.

UMnyamana wabuyisela isimo kwesejwayelekile. Kwatheleka izikhulu zizokotha iNgonyama uCetshwayo njengenjwayelo. Kwaqhutshekwa nokwakhiwa kweSigodlo ukuze sibe sezingeni elifanelekile. Waphaka izinhloli zakwaZulu ukuze iSilo uCetshwayo sizohlala siphephile. UTshanibezwe kaMnyamana noMntwana uNdabuko basuka oNdini baphikelela eMgazini beyobutha impi enkulu eyayizojezisa uZibhebhu ngoNdasa 1883. Kodwa-ke eMsebe lapho uTshanibezwe wayehola khona amabutho akwaButhelezi, uMakhoba ehola uSuthu olwaluzinze kwaMandlakazi kanye noMabhoko owayehola uMgazi, uZibhebhu wazivikela ngoba amaNgisi ayemhlomise ngezibhamu. Amanye amadodana kaMnyamana asala enkundleni eMsebe.

Phakathi nenyanga kaNhlangulana 1883, uMnyamana esekelwe ngamabutho ayesuka oNdini, waphikelela enqabeni kaHhamu. Kuleyo mpi uHhamu welekelelwa nguZibhebhu ngezibhamu. UMntwana uDabulamanzi wahloma wahlasela uZibhebhu. Kodwa lokho kuhlasela akuphumelelanga ngenxa yokuthi amaNgisi ayeqikelela ukuthi uZibhebhu ahlale ehlome ngezibhamu.

  • Lo mlando ucashunwe encwadini: Umlando Wamakhosi Esifundazweni saKwaZulu, Umqulu I. Uma uἀsa ukuthola le ncwadi enothe ngomlando wezizwe ungabhalela uSolwazi Maphalala kule email: maphalalajs@vodamail.co.za; noma ushayele kulezi zinombolo: 082 730 5782 noma ku-083 548 1918
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