Iphupho le-AfrikaIzindaba

URobert Mangaliso Sobukwe: Umqwaqwadi wezingqwele

nguMNU uDEZ KHUMALO

NgoLwesibili zingama-27 kuNhlolanja kuzobe kuphela iminyaka engama-40 kwadlula uSobukwe. ElaboHlanga lihlaziya iqhaza lemibono yalo mholi ekuxazululeni izinkinga ezibhekene ne-Afrika

 

Izinsuku zingama-27 kuNhlolanja wowe-1978, izwe laseNingizimu Afrika, izwekazi i-Afrika kanye nomhlaba wonke jikelele balahlekelwa wumholi ovunywa njengomqwaqwadi wezingqwele zepolitiki ngesikhathi kudlula emhlabeni uMnu uRobert Mangaliso Sobukwe. USobukwe, njengoba aziwa kanjalo wayengumholi weqembu elahlubuka ku-African National Congress (ANC) ngowe-1959 ngenxa yokungaboni ngaso linye nobuholi bayo obabuphezulu ngaleso sikhathi. Leli qembu elisha labe selibizwa ngePan Africanist Congress (PAC), uSobukwe wabe eseqokwa njengoMengameli walo engqungqutheleni yokuqala yokukhetha ubuholi.

Sekungumlando ukuthi uSobukwe wagqunywa iminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye ehlukanisiwe nezinye iziboshwa ezazisesiqhingini iRobben Island. Phakathi kwalezo ziboshwa kwakukhona nalowo owaba nguMengameli wokuqala weNingizimu Afrika ekhululekile uDkt uNelson Rolihlahla Mandela. Ukuvalelwa kukaSobukwe endlini yakhe yedwa kwakungenxa yokwesabeka kwemibono nezinkolelo zakhe zepolitiki. UHulumeni wobandlululo wayesaba ukuthi uma uSobukwe ehlanganiswa nezinye iziboshwa wayezozifaka umqondo owawuzoholela enkululekweni hhayi yezepolitiki nje kuphela, kodwa futhi eyayizobuyisela kwaboHlanga ubunikazi obuphelele bezwekazi i-Afrika.

Ukuyovalelwa kukaMnu uSobukwe esiqhingini kwalandela ukuhola kwakhe umkhankaso wokushiswa kwamapasi nokwadutshulwa kuwo aboHlanga abangama-69 ngamaphoyisa obandlululo okwaziwa ngesibhicongo saseSharpeville nakwaLanga. Lo mkhankaso yiwona othathwa ngokuthi wavula indlela ebheke enkululekweni yabamnyama ngokungenisa umzabalazo wesithathu wokuthi aboHlanga bathathe izikhali babhekane ngqo nengcindezelo abaMhlophe ababeyibhekise kubo. Izinhlangano i-ANC, iPAC neSouth African Communist Party  (SACP) zavalwa umlomo wuHulumeni zaphoqeka ukuphendukela emzabalazweni wezikhali nokukhankasela ukudutshwa kwaleli kwezomnotho nakwezemidlalo.

NgoLwesibili, zingama-27 kuNhlolanja, lo mholi uzobe eqeda iminyaka engama-40 adlula emhlabeni. Kuyadabukisa nokho ukuthi ezweni uSobukwe alizabalazela waze walendlalela ngempilo yakhe, usuku oluyingqophamlando njengalolu lufika lwedlule kungekho lutho olukhunjulwayo ngalesi sikhondlakhondla somzabalazo waboHlanga. USobukwe uyisikhondlakhondla hhayi seNingizimu Afrika kuphela kodwa sezwekazi lonke nomhlaba jikelele.   

Sekuphele iminyaka engaphezulu kwamashumi amabili iNingizimu Afrika yakhululeka kodwa izinkinga zokucwasa ngokobuhlanga nobubha ezwenikazi nakuleli lakithi kubukeka kuqhubekela phambili.  Labo ababeqhoqhobele umnotho izwe lingakakhululeki babukeka beya ngokuqinisa kakhulu izidladla emandleni omnotho wezwekazi ngesikhathi izinkumbi ezingabanikazi bomhlaba zigajwe yizimpi, izifo nobuphofu. Abaholi, ikakhulukazi abakuleli lakithi sebeyezwakala bephumisela lokho okwaba yimibono kaMnu uSobukwe eminyakeni eminingi eyedlulayo. UMengameli uCyril Ramaphosa ungene emandleni okuphatha ngeziqubulo zamandla ezomnotho nokubuyiswa komhlaba kwabaMhlophe ngaphandle kwenkokhelo. Neqembu le-Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) kaMnu uJulius Malema liyihlabelela sengathi yintsha le ngoma yezokubuyiswa komhlaba nomnotho.

Iqiniso elimsulwa lithi lena yimibono eyayiyisisekelo somzabalazo kaSobukwe. Ukuphuma kwakhe ku-ANC eqamba iPAC kwakungenxa yokuphambana kwakhe nombono wokuthi ubunikazi bezwe budluliselwe nakulabo abangewona ama-Afrika futhi okungenasiqiniseko sokwethembeka kwabo ezwenikazi i-Afrika. Wayekholelwa ku-Afrika ehlangene lapho wonke umuntu esebenzela ukuphumelela kwezwekazi ngokwamandla omnotho osebenzela impumelelo yabantu abangama-Afrika.

Ngaphezu kokulwela amandla omnotho, uSobukwe wafuna ikhambi lokukhuculula izinsalela zobukoloni emfundweni yama-Afrika. Leli khambi uSobukwe waba nalo ngonyaka we-1949, eFort Hare lapho abeka imizwa yakhe ngokucacile uma ethi: “INyuvesi iFort Hare mayibe kwabangama-Afrika lokho iStellenbosch (University) esiyikho emaBhunwini. Kumele ibe yisilinganiso somcabango wom-Afrika.” (uPogrund, 2005). Ngamafuphi nje isikhungo semfundo ephakeme esinjengeFort Hare sasingeke sasala ngaphandle ekuqeqesheni sikhiqize abaholi ababezokwazi okudingwa yi-Afrika izikhathi ngezikhathi nokwakuzokwenza ama-Afrika angethembeli kwabamhlophe ekuzithuthukiseni ngokolwazi nangokomnotho. Imfundo yomAfrika yayiphambili kakhulu kuSobukwe ngoba yiyo kuphela eyayinganikeza isiqiniseko sokuthi abantu bakithi abasezikhundleni zokuphatha bakulungele lokho. Wayengomunye wezifundiswa eziphambili kubantu abamnyama. Wafundisa eNyuvesi iWits eyayithathwa njengenye yahamba phambili kuleli. Ekhetha ukuhluphekela inkululeko yomuntu omnyama uSobukwe wenza isifungo esinzulu lapho elaxaza umsebenzi wokuyofundisa eRhodes University waqoka umzabalazo owawuyophetha ngokuthi anikele ngempilo yakhe ukuze ama-Afrika abe ngakhululekileyo impela. Wayephambene futhi ezimisele ukulwisana nobungqoshishilizi babaMhlophe phezu kwaboHlanga, efuna ukuzimela ngokuphelele kwama-Afrika ezweni lawo.

Kungumbono welaboHlanga ukuthi izisombululo zezinkinga zombusazwe ezibhekene nelakuleli zilele ekungashendezweni nasekungafenyisweni kwegalelo likaSobukwe. Kungumsebenzi weqembu elibusayo nathi sonke ukuphakamisa imisebenzi kaMnu uMangaliso Sobukwe. Inkululeko esayizuzayo yaba yinyamazane eyeqelwa yabulawa liviyo. USobukwe wayengumthonga wenqina eyayakhiwe yilelo viyo.

Izinkinga zokucwaswa kwabokufika kuleli, amandla omnotho angekho ezandleni zaboHlanga, izifo nokuhlonga ulwazi uSobukwe wayenamasu okulwisana nakho konke lokho. Ukumvuma uSobukwe njengomqwaqwadi wezingqwele zezombangazwe kuleli lizwe, kusetshenziswe lokho okwakungamasu akhe okuqhubeza umzabalazo wama-Afrika phambili, elaboHlanga alikubuki njengokwenzangakhona nje kuphela, kodwa likubona kungukuqala kokuhlakanipha isibili. Umcabango oyilolu hlobo ufakazelwa ngamazwi kaNgila Muendane uma ethi: ‘Ngelinye ilanga, muntu thizeni oneso elibuka kude, uyoyikhalima iNingizimu Afrika ebuwuleni bokubuka amaqhawe eqembu elibusayo njengokuyiwo kuphela afanelwe wukukhunjulwa nokuchonywa uphaphe lwegwalagwala ngokuthi kuqanjwe zonke izindawo nezikhungo zomphakathi ngawo.’ Indaba yakhe uyiphetha ngombuzo othi: ‘Niyowabuyisela nini amagama ethu amahle nawobuqhawe ezinhliziyweni zabantu abazuza ukuphila ngoba thina sinikele ngokwethu ukuphila?’ (Muendane: 2007).   

Isikhumbuzo seminyaka engama-40 kwadlula emhlabeni uMnu uRobert Mangaliso Sobukwe asibe ngesokuvuselela ezinhliziyweni zethu lokho ayekholelwa kukho nakuzabalazela, wakufela, i-Afrika, Izwe Lethu!

  • Ngosiba lukaDez Khumalo iphephandaba laboHlanga nakulo nyaka libheka ngokujulile ukubaluleka kwaleli qhawe emzabalazweni osaqhubeka namanje wokwenza ngcono impilo yezigidi zaboHlanga abazithola bebandlululekile emandleni omnotho ezweni okuthathwa ngokuthi bakhululekile kulo.
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